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Diagnoses & Disorders

The Maryland Center for Neuro-Ophthalmology and Neuro-Otology has expertise in the evaluation, management and treatment of vestibular disorders. Common diagnosis and disorders associated with vestibular disorders requiring a visit or referral to a neuro-otologist includes:



  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
  • Head trauma
  • Vestibular neuritis
  • Vestibular migraines
  • Vertebrobasilar insufficiency
  • Vasovagal
  • Tinnitus
  • Ototoxicity
  • Cerebellar atrophy
  • Mal de Debarquement
  • Acoustic Neuroma
  • Meniere’s Syndrome
  • Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome
  • Superior Canal Dehiscence
  • Otosclerosis
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Nystagmus


Central Causes of Vestibular Dysfunction in Infants and Children

  • Anoxia
  • Stroke
  • Meningitis
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Maternal drug or alcohol abuse during pregnancy
  • Immune deficiency disorders
  • Metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus
  • Vascular insufficiencies
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Chronic Ear Infections

Specific Vestibular Disorder

  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
  • Vestibular neuritis or labyrinthitis
  • Ototoxicity (antibiotics, chemotherapy)
  • Ménière’s disease
  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Childhood paroxysmal vertigo or migraine equivalent
  • Perilymph fistula

Peripheral Causes of Vestibular Dysfunction in Infants and Children

  • Chronic ear infections
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and other infections
  • Surgery in or near the inner ear
  • Malformations-acquired or congenital
    • Brachio-otorenal syndrome
    • Mondini dysplasia
    • Torticollis
    • Waardenburg syndrome
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Congenital sensorineural hearing loss
  • Genetic disorders
    • Usher syndrome
      • Type I-hearing loss, balance problems, and deteriorating vision loss by age 10
      • Type III-balance and vision problems later in life

Additional information regarding the various vestibular disorders and diagnosis can be found at

NOTICE: The information provided on this site is intended for your general knowledge only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment for specific medical conditions. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition.